Medicine List

Medicine List


By Jim E. Quarles

At times fish become ill, or infected with parasites that require treatments, this is a sad fact of life. But a sadder fact is when someone just jumps up and dumps drugs or chemicals into their tanks without the best information about not only the substance being used but it's limitations and / or proper dosage and duration of the treatment.

The list of items here should enlighten the subject a little bit, but I recommend that their use be a "Last Resort", not the first thing done.

One other word before listing the drugs or chemical compounds '' PREVENTION IS ALWAYS THE BEST TREATMENT ". Good clean water, frequently changed, meeting the individual requirements of a given species, is vital to good health and well being.


                                        Pharmaceuticals & Chemicals



Triple Sulfas Treatment for fin and tail rot, mouth fungus and collapsed fins. 1/4 teaspoon to 10 gallons of water every 24 hours. Replace dosage after each water change.
Worm-Free Treatment for all worms ( helminths); intestinal, Acanthocephala; digentic trematodes; Cestoda;molluscicie ( snails ) 1/8 teaspoon per 10 gallons. ( Do not mix in food )
Sulfathiazole Sodium Powder 100% Treatment for bacterial infections.
1/4 teaspoon to 10 gallons of water.
SULFISOXAZOLE Treatment of kidney disease, Peduncle disease, bacterial cold water disease, Columnaris and furunculosis. 250 ml.gram per 20 gallons of water. Or one tablet.
Tetracycline Hydrochloride Treatment of bacterial infection, both gram positive and gram negative. one 250ml gram tablet to 10 gallons of water. Repeated treatment advised.
Tranquil fish anesthetic, tranquilizer. Will anesthetize a fish exposed between 1 and 3 minutes, with an uneventful recovery in 3 to 15 minutes. teaspoon per gallon for small fish and 1 teaspoon for larger fish.
Trimethoprim & Sulfathiazole Treatment of bacterial infections, both gram positive and Gram nagative, the combination retards resistant strains from developing. It exerts it anti-microbial effect by blocking 2 consecuitive steps int he biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins essentaial to many bacteria. 1/4 teaspoon per 10 gallons.
Sulfa 4 TMP Powder This is a blend of four different sulfas that have different absorption rates and solubilities. Prevents resistant strains from being developed. teaspoon per 20 gallons of water.
Sulfadiazine Powder 100% Anti-bacterial. 1/4 teaspoon to 10 gallons of water.
Sulfamerazine Powder 100% Anti-bacterial. 1/4 teaspoon per 10 gallons of water.
Povidine. (Beatadine) Disinfection of wounds. (Good net dip) . 1 ounce per 1 gallon of water.
Quinine Sulfate 325 mg. Treatment of Ich, protozoans, sliminess of the skin, Rams disease, (whirling disease). 1 capsule per 14 gallons of water once each day of 2 to 3 days.
Potassium permanganate powder Treatment of extrenal parasites, external lesions, bacteria on the skin. Fungi, protozoa, monogenea, hirudinea ( leeches ) crustacea (argulus, lernaea.) 22.8 grams to 4 oz. Of water. The use 2 drops per gallon=5ppm. Should be used only in ph range of 7 or above.

Warning:::: PP should never be used on small discus under 3 inch in total size. If you use enough to kill the parasites you will also burn the fish gills of small discus.

Shot Gun A very strong antibacterial. Shot Gun is said to protect from all the following fish diseases? Dropsy, fin and tail rot, fungal diseases, furunculosis, cotton mouth, gill disease, columnaris. Bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia, cold water disease, protozoa costia. Dosage: 1/8 teaspoon per 10 gallons of water.
Metronidazole: (FLAGYL) Treatment of hole in the head disease (
hexamita ) salt water ich or bloat.
250 ml per 20 gallons of water, and can be mixed in foods.
Nalidixic Acid Mono Sodium Hydrate Teatment of Neon disease, gram negative bacteria, treating sharks, corydoras, and angels. Try this when fish die for no apparent reason when other medications are nothelpful. 250 ml. per 30 gallons of water.

Warning a complete water
change is required after 3 days.
Nitrofuracin Green This is a combination of nitro furazone, furazlidone, methylene blue and salt. It is an anti-bacterial adgent. 1/4 teaspoon to 20 gallons of water.
Nitrofurazone powder 100% This is a good disinfectant for clearing water prior to installing newly arrived fish. Effective againest marine ulcer disease and protozoans. 1/4 teaspoon to 20 gallons of water.
Nystatin 500,000 units. Per tablet. Treatment of fungal infections works with other anti-biotics when there are mixed infections. 1 tablet to 10 gallons of water.
Oxolinic Acid Powder 100% Anti-bacterial gram negative backeria. 1/4 teaspoon to 30 gallons of water.
Warning: A complete water change is required after 3 days of use.
Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride Gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cold water diseases bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia and mouth fungus. 1/4 teaspoon to 20 gallons of water.
Penicillin VK 250mg nti-biotic for gill infections fungus protozoa
1 tablet to 5 to 10 gallons of water.
300 mg
Treatment for tuberculosis in susceptible fish such as Discus. Used in conjunctions with Neomycin and vitamin B-6. 1 tablet to 20 gallons of water.
Kanamycin Gram negative bacteria resistant strains of tuberculosis. (questionable value since it  has been over used and mis-used by hobbyist) 1/4 teaspoon per 20 gallons of water.
Malachite Green (zinc free) 100% Cures Ich, fungus, oodinium (velvet) mouth fungus, and prevents fungus on some eggs, most effective when used with salt. 28.4 grams make 1 gallon. Then use 1 drop per gallon.
Methylene Blue( zinc free ) 100% Can be used to increase oxygen in water. But other then that it has been prove to be of little value in fish tanks. Dosage: 24 grams makes 1 pint. Then use 1 drop per gallon of water. (Don't expect much form this chemical and you won't be disappointed)
Formaldehyde37% Concentrate External fungicide, external protozoacide and ectoprasites, mongenia, hirudinea and crustacea. Can be used as a dip or for longer baths according to parts per millon. 1 drop per gallon.
Warning- this is nasty stuff, very dangerous to humans and fish use only in a well ventalated area and avoid skin contact.
Gentamycin Powder The most powerful gram negative anti-bacterial on the market today. Effective in freah and saltwater. Only one dose is usually required. This is one of the very few drugs that is absorbed into the blood stream theough the gills of fish. 1/4 teaspoon per 40 gallons of water.
Furazolidone Powder 100% Cold water diseases protozoans. 1/4 teaspoon per 15 gallons of water.
E.D.T.A. (ethylene diamine tetra acidic acid) Chelates and inactivates heavy metal ions such as calcium, iron, copper,and other triplex ions. Lowers ph. Dose is based on the hardness of the water. Do not lower ph more then 0.2 per day. 10.9 grams to 1 pint of water. Then use 1 teaspoon per 10 gallons, lowers, ph based on water hardness.
Erythromycin Phosphate Powder Fin and tail rot, corynebacterium (kidney disease) Popeye, and most gram postitive and some gram negative bacteria and fungus. 1/4 teaspoon in 20 gallons of water.
Benzalkonium Chloride 50% Concentrate Antibacterial and Anti-viral. Good for sterilization net dip and disinfectant. Use 10 ml per gallon for net dip. Use 3 drops per gallon treating gill rot. 2ppm for one hour bath. Treat once per day until fish seems normal.
Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate Algicide, bacterial problems, fungicide,
external protozoa, such as ich
oodinium sliminess of the skin and flukes
1 drop per gallon. and checked every 24 hours for total ppm.

You need a copper test kit to safely use copper. I don't recommend it for newbies.
Warning never use copper when
hardness of water is less
then 50ppm.  Safer at  200ppm.
DE-LOS AND SALT Used to control anchor worms, lice and gill flukes. teaspoon per 10 gallons of water. Warning not much is known about this compounds effects on tropical fish.
Doxycycline Hyclate 50 mg. Capsules Broad spectrum antibiotic derived from Oxtetracycline, it works on most bacterial infections. It does not become inactivated by calcium, iron or other heavy metals. One treatment is all that is generally required. 1 capsule per 20 gallons of water.
Acriflavine Neureal Powder 100% Treatment for bacterial infections such as mouth fungus, fin and tail rot, fungus of all types, skin parasites, and flukes. 19.2 grams makes a pint. Then use 1 drop per gallon = 5ppm.
Ampicillin Trihydrate. 250 mg. Capsules Wide spectrum antibiotic. 1 capsule per 10 gallons of water very 24 hours until improvement is noted.

Warning and Notice: None of the above medications or chemical compounds have ever been proven to work when treating Tropical fish for disease. No published studies have been released proving the effectiveness of these items.

Thier use is a shot in the dark at a complex problem. If you do elect to use antibiotics I recommend a 14 day treatment span. To avoid producing resistant strains of bacteria.

Acknowledgements to Dow-Chemical Corp. And to The Fishy Farmacy, also to Monsato Chemical Corp. For the information they supplied for this list.

The use of this list is your own responsibility. You can not hold DPH/Jim E. Quarles responsible for mistreatment or miss interpretation.

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